34o HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION largely because he was known to be in general agreement with Pestalozzi's methods; and the pedagogical part of his duties always received special attention from him. Not only did he lecture on education,'but he established a demonstration school (which developed into a training college), to supplement the lecture course. In this school, his idea of a twofold course—of mathematics, to give a training in the observation of natural facts, and of the classics, beginning with Homer's Odyssey, to cultivate the human sympathies—was put into practice. He himself gave mathematical lessons in the presence of the students, and met them at a weekly conference on school work. In 1833 he returned to Gottingen, and there spent the last years of his life. Among the few works written by him during this period was a restatement of his educational principles under the title Outlines of Pedagogical Lectures, in which the doctrines of his General Pedagogy were brought more explicitly into relation with his psychology. He died in the midst of his labours in 1841. Herbart's philosophy is somewhat misleadingly called realism; but it is not realism in any proper sense of the term, since he does not think that any of the things known to us are real or that their real nature can ever be known. He is only a realist in so far as he believes that there is reality—unknowable reality—behind the appearance of things, and that by way of interpreting the facts of experience it is permissible to postulate the existence of simple entities or " reals/' about which all that can be said is that they exist and that they are manifold. But though these entities are not in space and are not forces, we can think of them, if we choose, as if they were forces interacting in a kind of " ideal" or " intelli- gible " space. That, according to Herbart, is the most adequate way of representing them to ourselves. This hypothesis applies as much to our experience of our own mental states as to our experience of objects. " The simple nature of the soul is totally unknown and will for ever remain so." * What we call the soul, the soul that manifests itself in time, is not the real soul, but " only the sum of the actual presentations" or mental states which have come through individual experience. About the origin of these presentations it is impossible to say more than that they are the product of the reaction of the unknowable real soul on the unknowable real things. From this it follows that the presentations * LMuch *tr Psychology, iii, 153, English translation by Smith $< ;*o.